A signal can have either a single source or multiple sources; therefore, one or more drivers. In the case of more than one driver, the signal must be of a “resolved type” and a resolution function must be associated with it: this function must “resolve” the drivers into a single transaction. Download the latest drivers, software, firmware, and diagnostics for your HP products from the official HP Support website.

  1. Drivers Syntax Examples
  2. Selenium Driver Syntax
  3. Drivers Synonym
  4. Drivers Syntax Meaning
  5. Drivers Syntax Practice
  • JDBC Tutorial
  • JDBC Examples
  • JDBC Useful Resources
  • Selected Reading

What is JDBC Driver?

JDBC drivers implement the defined interfaces in the JDBC API, for interacting with your database server.

For example, using JDBC drivers enable you to open database connections and to interact with it by sending SQL or database commands then receiving results with Java.

The Java.sql package that ships with JDK, contains various classes with their behaviours defined and their actual implementaions are done in third-party drivers. Third party vendors implements the java.sql.Driver interface in their database driver.

JDBC Drivers Types

JDBC driver implementations vary because of the wide variety of operating systems and hardware platforms in which Java operates. Sun has divided the implementation types into four categories, Types 1, 2, 3, and 4, which is explained below −

Type 1: JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver

In a Type 1 driver, a JDBC bridge is used to access ODBC drivers installed on each client machine. Using ODBC, requires configuring on your system a Data Source Name (DSN) that represents the target database.

When Java first came out, this was a useful driver because most databases only supported ODBC access but now this type of driver is recommended only for experimental use or when no other alternative is available.

Drivers syntax practice

The JDBC-ODBC Bridge that comes with JDK 1.2 is a good example of this kind of driver.

Type 2: JDBC-Native API

In a Type 2 driver, JDBC API calls are converted into native C/C++ API calls, which are unique to the database. These drivers are typically provided by the database vendors and used in the same manner as the JDBC-ODBC Bridge. The vendor-specific driver must be installed on each client machine.

If we change the Database, we have to change the native API, as it is specific to a database and they are mostly obsolete now, but you may realize some speed increase with a Type 2 driver, because it eliminates ODBC's overhead.

The Oracle Call Interface (OCI) driver is an example of a Type 2 driver.

Type 3: JDBC-Net pure Java

In a Type 3 driver, a three-tier approach is used to access databases. The JDBC clients use standard network sockets to communicate with a middleware application server. The socket information is then translated by the middleware application server into the call format required by the DBMS, and forwarded to the database server.

This kind of driver is extremely flexible, since it requires no code installed on the client and a single driver can actually provide access to multiple databases.

You can think of the application server as a JDBC 'proxy,' meaning that it makes calls for the client application. As a result, you need some knowledge of the application server's configuration in order to effectively use this driver type.

Your application server might use a Type 1, 2, or 4 driver to communicate with the database, understanding the nuances will prove helpful.

Type 4: 100% Pure Java

In a Type 4 driver, a pure Java-based driver communicates directly with the vendor's database through socket connection. This is the highest performance driveravailable for the database and is usually provided by the vendor itself.

This kind of driver is extremely flexible, you don't need to install special software on the client or server. Further, these drivers can be downloaded dynamically.

Drivers Syntax

MySQL's Connector/J driver is a Type 4 driver. Because of the proprietary nature of their network protocols, database vendors usually supply type 4 drivers.

Which Driver should be Used?

If you are accessing one type of database, such as Oracle, Sybase, or IBM, the preferred driver type is 4.

If your Java application is accessing multiple types of databases at the same time, type 3 is the preferred driver.

Type 2 drivers are useful in situations, where a type 3 or type 4 driver is not available yet for your database.

The type 1 driver is not considered a deployment-level driver, and is typically used for development and testing purposes only.

  • Selenium Tutorial
  • Selenium Useful Resources
  • Selected Reading

WebDriver is a tool for automating testing web applications. It is popularly known as Selenium 2.0. WebDriver uses a different underlying framework, while Selenium RC uses JavaScript Selenium-Core embedded within the browser which has got some limitations. WebDriver interacts directly with the browser without any intermediary, unlike Selenium RC that depends on a server. It is used in the following context −

Drivers Syntax Examples

  • Multi-browser testing including improved functionality for browsers which is not well-supported by Selenium RC (Selenium 1.0).

  • Handling multiple frames, multiple browser windows, popups, and alerts.

  • Complex page navigation.

  • Advanced user navigation such as drag-and-drop.

  • AJAX-based UI elements.


Drivers synonyms thesaurus

WebDriver is best explained with a simple architecture diagram as shown below.

Selenium RC Vs WebDriver

Selenium RCSelenium WebDriver
The architecture of Selenium RC is complicated, as the server needs to be up and running before starting a test.WebDriver's architecture is simpler than Selenium RC, as it controls the browser from the OS level.
Selenium server acts as a middleman between the browser and Selenese commands.WebDriver interacts directly with the browser and uses the browser's engine to control it.
Selenium RC script execution is slower, since it uses a Javascript to interact with RC.WebDriver is faster, as it interacts directly with the browser.
Selenium RC cannot support headless execution as it needs a real browser to work with.WebDriver can support the headless execution.
It's a simple and small API.Complex and a bit large API as compared to RC.
Less object-oriented API.Purely object oriented API.
Cannot test mobile Applications.Can test iPhone/Android applications.

Scripting using WebDriver

Let us understand how to work with WebDriver. For demonstration, we would use https://www.calculator.net/. We will perform a 'Percent Calculator' which is located under 'Math Calculator'. We have already downloaded the required WebDriver JAR's. Refer the chapter 'Environmental Setup' for details.

Step 1 − Launch 'Eclipse' from the Extracted Eclipse folder.

Step 2 − Select the Workspace by clicking the 'Browse' button.

Step 3 − Now create a 'New Project' from 'File' menu.

Step 4 − Enter the Project Name and Click 'Next'.

Selenium Driver Syntax

Step 5 − Go to Libraries Tab and select all the JAR's that we have downloaded. Add reference to all the JAR's of Selenium WebDriver Library folder and also selenium-java-2.42.2.jar and selenium-java-2.42.2-srcs.jar.

Step 6 − The Package is created as shown below.

Step 7 − Now right-click on the package and select 'New' >> 'Class' to create a 'class'.

Drivers Syntax

Step 8 − Now name the class and make it the main function.

Step 9 − The class outline is shown as below.

Step 10 − Now it is time to code. The following script is easier to understand, as it has comments embedded in it to explain the steps clearly. Please take a look at the chapter 'Locators' to understand how to capture object properties.

Step 11 − The output of the above script would be printed in Console.

Drivers Synonym

Most Used Commands

Drivers Syntax Meaning

The following table lists some of the most frequently used commands in WebDriver along with their syntax.

Drivers Syntax Practice

Sr.No.Command & Description


To navigate to an application.



Enter some text into an input box.



Clear the contents from the input box.



Deselect all OPTIONs from the first SELECT on the page.


select.selectByVisibleText('some text')

Select the OPTION with the input specified by the user.



Move the focus from one window to another.



Swing from frame to frame.



Helps in handling alerts.



Navigate to the URL.



To navigate forward.



To navigate back.



Closes the current browser associated with the driver.



Quits the driver and closes all the associated window of that driver.



Refreshes the current page.

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