1. Drivers Sma Technologies
  2. Drivers Sma Technologies

A study by researchers at U of T's Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering reveals some in-vehicle displays can lead to drivers being over-reliant on automated systems (Photo courtesy of Dengbo He/University of Toronto)

As smart car technology increasingly takes over certain driving tasks, a new Canadian study shows that drivers can be lulled into a false sense of security by automated vehicle technology that is still not advanced enough to handle critical situations without the driver’s input.

SMA Download - Documentations and Documents. The info portal for all SMA plant operators allows you to view and monitor data, access documents and receive status updates. Visualization technologies — mixed reality, virtual and augmented reality — can enhance worker capabilities and help create safer, more productive processes. Mixed-Reality Technologies. Imagine the knowledge of your entire organization applied to a specific production problem. For example, a maintenance engineer can wear a mixed-reality. Intel® Smart Sound Technology (Intel® SST) provides the computing power for audio pre-processing, and integrates pre-processing technologies from industry leaders like Intel, ForteMedia., Conexant. and Waves.

The study by a team of researchers at the University of Toronto found that certain types of automated vehicle (AV) displays may lead to “overreliance on automation and impede anticipatory driving.”

The findings suggest that including surrounding traffic information on these displays can better calibrate drivers’ reliance on automation and facilitate anticipatory driving.

The study was conducted by a team of researchers at the department of mechanical and industrial engineering in the Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering and was led by professor Birsen Donmez. It looked at two types of in-vehicle displays and their effects on the driving behaviours using an AV driving simulator and eye tracking equipment.

The findings, published recently in the journal Accident Analysis & Prevention, revealed that drivers can become over-reliant on AV technology.

The study included 48 experienced drivers who were given certain common tasks such as finding a song from the car’s playlist or reading a text message while driving the simulator in various conditions.

The study simulated driving scenarios with two criticality levels: one version of the scenarios did not necessitate an action from the driver to avoid a collision, whereas the other version did.

The driving automation implemented in the simulator consisted of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance (LKA).

Drivers Sma Technologies

The first type of vehicle display investigated by the study is known as “takeover request and automation capability,” or TORAC.

A “takeover request” happens when the automated system detects a need for driver takeover and alerts the driver to do so, while “automation capability” indicates how close the automation is to its limit, Birsen said.

Drivers Sma technologies

“We found that people performed better during takeover scenarios when provided with a takeover request compared to when they were not, however, they also showed a tendency to overrely on the automation to tell them when to take over,” Birsen said.


“In particular, outside of the takeover events, participants monitored the roadway less and showed fewer anticipatory behaviors such as noticing a potential traffic conflict ahead and hovering their foot on the brake pedal.”

Just like the current SAE Level-2 automation systems are not perfect, so are takeover requests implemented within these systems, she added.

One fo the examples she gave was a 2018 crash of a Tesla Model S car that slammed into the back of a stopped firetruck in San Jose, California.

The report by the National Transportation Safety Board found that the vehicle, which was on its Autopilot system at the time of the crash, failed to “detect” the firetruck and accelerated the Tesla toward the stationary truck.

By the time the system detected the stationary vehicle and gave the driver a collision warning—0.49 second before impact —the collision was imminent and the warning was too late, particularly for an inattentive driver, the NTSB report said.

“Driver overreliance on automation is a significant issue in Level-2 systems, and the implementation of takeover requests can exacerbate this issue,” Birsen said. “If the takeover request fails, we would need the driver to still be able to take over control of the vehicle, so the driver has to be attentive to the roadway and automation.”

The researchers also tested a second in-vehicle display system that added information on surrounding traffic to the data provided by the TORAC system, called STTORAC.

“When we provided surrounding traffic information to the participants (on an in-vehicle interface) in addition to takeover requests, this overreliance issue was rectified,” Birsen said.

“Adding information on surrounding traffic kept drivers better engaged in monitoring and anticipating traffic conflicts but also improved takeover performance.”

This type of information may be possible through the use of connected vehicle technologies (e.g., cars “talking to each other”) in addition to driving automation, and increase drivers’ readiness to take back control of the vehicle in advance of critical events even before a takeover request is triggered, she added.

Donmez’s team will next look at the effects of non-driving behaviours on drowsiness while operating an AV.

“If someone isn’t engaged in a non-driving task and is just monitoring the road, they can be more likely to fall into states of drowsiness, which is even more dangerous than being distracted,” she said.

Categories: Internet, Science & Technology, Society
Tags: automated vehicle, display, driving, study, University of Toronto

Drivers Sma Technologies

Do you want to report an error or a typo? Click here!

These Terms set out Your rights and obligations regarding use of the OpCon Solution. Your access to and use of the OpCon Solution is conditioned on Your acceptance of and compliance with these Terms. These Terms apply to all users who access or use the OpCon Solution (each, a “User”). By installing, accessing or using the OpCon Solution, You agree to be bound by these Terms. If You disagree with any part of these Terms, then You may not install, access or use the OpCon Solution.

Your access to and use of the OpCon Solution is also conditioned on Your acceptance of and compliance with the Privacy Policy of the Company. The Privacy Policy describes Our policies and procedures on the collection, use and disclosure of Your personal information when You use the OpCon Solution or our website, and tells You about Your privacy rights and how the law protects You. Please read Our Privacy Policy carefully before using Our Service.

1. Scope. These Terms provide Customer with access to and use of the OpCon Solution identified in the Order linked to these Terms. For purposes of these Terms, the following capitalized words or phrases will have the specified meaning:

  • Customer (or “You” or “Your”) means the entity identified as the “Customer” in the Order.
  • Data Source meansa specified source of data and information accessed by the OpCon Solution, including, but not limited to, external internet websites, internal intranet websites, third-party applications (e.g., ERP systems and EDI exchanges), private and public websites, emails, or paper documents.
  • Documentation means the technical and user documentation for the OpCon Solution, located at https://help.smatechnologies.com/,which is incorporated herein.
  • IP Rights means any patent, trade secret, copyright, and trademark rights applied for and/or existing in the United States.
  • Order means ordering document linked to these Terms, which may contain at least one Schedule and/or one SOW.
  • Privacy Policy means Company’s official Privacy Policy document located at www.smatechnologies/privacypolicy, which is incorporated herein.
  • Schedule contains the offering details, duration, subscription capacity, and pricing, among other things, related to Customer’s use of the OpCon Solution, which is attached to an Order.
  • SOW means a statement of work attached to an Order which contains the details of Company’s services related to the OpCon Solution.
  • Support means those support and maintenance services provided by Company for the OpCon Solution under these Terms.
  • Task means each unique set of instructions executed in the OpCon Solution. For clarification purposes, a Task that runs one time on one machine counts as one Task. A Task that runs multiple times on the same machine using the same parameters counts as a Task. A Task that runs on multiple machines or using multiple parameters counts as multiple Tasks. For licensing purposes, a Task is counted whether the unit of work completes successfully or fails.

2. License.

  • License. Subject to these Terms, Company grants to Customer a non-exclusive, non-transferable, and term-based license (the “License”) to use the OpCon Solution in accordance with the following:
  • To the extent delivered in object-code format, Customer may install the OpCon Solution on those computers specified in the Schedule and may use the OpCon Solution to perform Tasks, among other functions described in the Documentation;
  • To the extent delivered as a service, Customer may use the OpCon Solution to perform Tasks, among other functions described in the Documentation;
  • Customer may allow its employees, majority-owned affiliates, representatives, consultants, contractors or agents to access and use the OpCon Solution; providedthat such access and use of the OpCon Solution must be for the sole benefit of Customer, and Customer must remain responsible for such Users’ compliance with these Terms.
  • License Restrictions. Customer will not, nor will it permit or assist Users to:
  • decompile, disassemble or reverse engineer the OpCon Solution or otherwise circumvent protection of the OpCon Solution;
  • use the OpCon Solution to develop or market any conversion utility or aid specific to the OpCon Solution enabling users to convert from the OpCon Solution to an alternative software application;
  • market, sell, lease, lend, provide, transfer, assign, grant or otherwise commercialize any interest in, the License or the OpCon Solution to any third-party;
  • print, reproduce or copy in any form, in whole or in part, the OpCon Solution, except as is necessary for its own internal use and for backup purposes. Any and all copies made by Customer are subject to these Terms and are the sole and exclusive property of Company and must remain in the custody and control of Customer. Company may adopt from time to time such mechanical or electronic methods as Company deems necessary to control the unauthorized use or distribution of the OpCon Solution, associated Documentation or supporting material; and
  • make unauthorized changes to the underlying database(s) in the OpCon Solution.
  • Customer Data. Customer owns all data or information that is provided by Customer or stored in the OpCon Solution or provided from a Data Source (“Customer Data”). Customer grants Company the right to use the Customer Data solely for purposes of performing under this Agreement. During the term of a Schedule, Customer may export its Customer Data as allowed by functionality within the OpCon Solution in standardized format, as described in the Documentation. Customer grants Company a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to internally and externally use any aggregated and anonymized statistical data regarding the performance of the OpCon Solution in a manner that does not allow for the identification of Customer or disclosure of Customer Data.

3. Term and Termination.

  • Term. This Agreement continues until its associated Order has expired or been terminated as provided below.
  • Termination for Material Breach. If either party is in material breach of these Terms, the other party may terminate these Terms at the end of a written 30-day notice/cure period, if the breach has not been cured.
  • Suspension.Company may, after giving Customer reasonable notice, temporarily suspend Customer’s access to an OpCon Solution if Customer is 30 days or more overdue in its payment of any subscription fees; or Company believes in good faith that, in using the OpCon Solution, Customer has violated, or will violate, a law.
  • Return of Customer Data. Upon request within 30 days after termination or expiration of this Agreement, Company will make Customer Data available to Customer in an industry standard format. After such 30-day period, Company has no obligation to maintain the Customer Data and will destroy it.
  • Return of CompanyProperty upon Termination. Upon termination of this Agreement for any reason, Customer must pay Company all unpaid, invoiced amounts, and destroy or return all property of Company. Upon Company’s request, Customer will confirm in writing its compliance with this destruction or return requirement.

4. Services.

  • Support. Subject to Customer’s payment of required Support Fees as specified in a Schedule, if any, Company will provide Support for the Opcon Solution under the terms of Company’s Support Policy which is located at www.smatechnologies.com/support, which is incorporated into these Terms for all purposes (“Support Policy”). Support includes the following:
  • Such services necessary to cause the OpCon Solution to perform in accordance with the Documentation;
  • Such improvements, enhancements, extensions and other changes to the OpCon Solution as are determined by Company to be suitable to the uses made of the OpCon Solution by Customer;
  • Updates for the OpCon Solution as required to cause the OpCon Solution to operate under new versions of Customer’s operating system(s); provided such updates are technically feasible as determined in Company’s sole reasonable discretion.
  • Implementation Services. As documented in a mutually-signed SOW, Company will provide specified setup, conversion, implementation, and/or customization services with respect to the OpCon Solution, subject in all respects to these Terms and the SOW.

5. Payment.

  • Fees. Customer must pay all fees due under the Order within 30 days of the invoice date, in the currency reflected in each Order, except for any invoices disputed in good faith as being inaccurate. Company may charge Customer 1.5% late fees if Customer is 30 days late on a payment. Customer is responsible for all sales, use, withholding, value added tax (VAT) and other similar taxes. No Customer purchase order is required unless specified in an Order.
  • Expenses. Customer will reimburse Company for reasonable travel expenses incurred in connection with its performance under a SOW. In connection with any invoice for expense reimbursement, Company will provide copies of receipts and other documents reasonably necessary to verify the amount and nature of any such expenses.
  • Taxes. Payment of all sales tax, use tax, VAT, foreign, state or federal taxes, and any other taxes in any form, offsets, withholding or currency control associated with the Order, and all subsequent Support charges, will reside solely with, and be the financial responsibility of, the Customer, excluding taxes based on Company’s income which will be paid by Company. Domestic sales and use taxes will be included on invoices where applicable unless Customer provides Company with reasonable evidence of Customer’s exemption from such taxes.
  • Audit and True-ups. Upon request, Customer will provide reports to Company for the purpose of calculation of fees pursuant to and due under the Order. Customer acknowledges that Company may use functionality within the OpCon Solution to collect usage information to assist in such calculations. Once a year, Company, and its designated representatives, may audit Customer’s records that relate to its payment obligations under an Order.
  • Proprietary Rights; Confidentiality; Personal Data; Data Security.

6. Proprietary Rights. Company and its licensors retain ownership of the OpCon Solution and its associated design, software, documentation, processes, algorithms, and user interfaces, and all IP Rights embodied therein (“CompanyTechnology”). Customer may not remove or modify any proprietary marking or restrictive legends from the Company Technology. Company reserves all rights not expressly granted in these Terms.

  • Mutual Confidentiality.
  • Definition of Confidential Information. Confidential Information means all non-public information disclosed by a party (“Discloser”) to the other party (“Recipient”), whether orally or in writing, that is designated as confidential or that reasonably should be understood to be confidential given the nature of the information and the circumstances of disclosure (“Confidential Information”). Customer Confidential Information includes, without limitation, the Customer Data. Company’s Confidential Information includes, without limitation, these Terms, the Order, and the Company Technology.
  • Protection of Confidential Information. A Recipient must use the same degree of care that it uses to protect the confidentiality of its own confidential information (but in no event less than reasonable care) and will not disclose or use any Confidential Information of the Discloser for any purpose outside the scope of this Agreement. The Recipient must make commercially reasonable efforts to limit access to Confidential Information to those of its employees and contractors who need such access for purposes consistent with this Agreement and who have signed confidentiality agreements with Recipient no less restrictive than the terms of this Agreement.
  • Exclusions. Confidential Information excludes information that: (1) is or becomes generally known to the public without breach of any obligation owed to Discloser, (2) was known to the Recipient prior to its disclosure by the Discloser without breach of any obligation owed to the Discloser, (3) is received from a third-party without breach of any obligation owed to Discloser, or (4) was independently developed by the Recipient without use or access to the Confidential Information. The Recipient may disclose Confidential Information to the extent required by law or court order but will provide Discloser with advance notice to seek a protective order.
  • Protection of Personal Data.
  • Customer shall be the “Data Controller” of any personal data processed while using the OpCon Solution ('Personal Data'), and must therefore comply with its legal obligations relating to the processing of personal data.
  • When providing the the OpCon Solution as a service, Company will not have access to nor process any Personal Data.
  • When the OpCon Solution is installed on premise at a Customer facility, by configuration Company will not have access to Customer network(s) or Personal Data, and does not monitor the processing of Customer Data.
  • Customer agrees, upon demand, to defend, hold harmless and indemnify Company against any claim, damage, loss, fine, cost, expense or liability suffered or otherwise incurred by the Company arising as a result of or in connection with breach of this clause (c).
  • Data Security.
  • Security Measures. In order to protect Customer Data, Company will (1) implement and maintain all reasonable security measures appropriate to the nature of the Customer Data including without limitation, technical, physical, administrative and organizational controls, and will maintain the confidentiality, security and integrity of such Customer Data; (2) implement and maintain industry standard systems and procedures for detecting, preventing and responding to attacks, intrusions, or other systems failures and regularly test or otherwise monitor the effectiveness of the safeguards’ key controls, systems, and procedures; (3) designate an employee or employees to coordinate implementation and maintenance of its security measures; and (4) identify reasonably foreseeable internal and external risks to the security, confidentiality and integrity of Customer Data that could result in the unauthorized disclosure, misuse, alteration, destruction or other compromise of such information, and assess the sufficiency of any safeguards in place to control these risks. Such security measures will conform in all material respects to Company’s most current SOC 2, Type II audit (“SOC 2 Report”), which is incorporated herein by reference. Upon Customer’s request, Company will provide a confidential copy of its SOC Report to Customer or its designee.
  • Notice of Data Breach. If Company believes, in its reasonable, good-faith discretion, that Personal Data has been accessed, disclosed, or acquired through Company’s fault, Company will alert Customer of any such data breach within two business days, and immediately take such actions as may be necessary to preserve forensic evidence and eliminate the cause of the data breach. Company will give highest priority to promptly correcting any data breach and devote such resources as may be required to accomplish that goal. Company will provide Customer with information reasonably necessary to enable Customer to understand the nature and scope of the data breach. To the extent that, in its sole reasonable discretion, Customer determines to be necessary, Customer may provide notice to any or all parties affected by the data breach. In such case, Company will consult with Customer in a timely fashion regarding appropriate steps required to notify third parties.

7. Warranties.

  • OpCon Solution Warranty. Company warrants that: (i) the OpCon Solution will contain the features and functions contained in the Documentation; and (ii) the functionality or features of the OpCon Solution may change but will not materially decrease during any paid term. AS CUSTOMER’S EXCLUSIVE REMEDY AND COMPANY’S ENTIRE LIABILITY UNDER THIS WARRANTY, Company will fix or replace the non-conforming portion of the OpCon Solution within a commercially reasonable period of time after Customer notifies Company of the breach; provided, however, if within the 60 day period following initial delivery of the OpCon Solution to Customer, Company cannot remedy the breach, then Customer may terminate the Order and request a refund of the fees paid for such OpCon Solution. This warranty does not apply if: (1) the OpCon Solution is not used in accordance with Documentation, (2) any equipment supplied by Customer malfunctions, or (3) any other cause which is not attributable to Company.
  • Implementation Services Warranty. Company warrants that, for a period of 60 days after delivery of any Implementation Service, it has performed such Implementation Service in accordance with the SOW and generally accepted practices within the software industry. Customer must notify Company of any breach of this warranty no later than 30 days after delivery of the applicable Implementation Service. AS CUSTOMER’S EXCLUSIVE REMEDY AND COMPANY’S ENTIRE LIABILITY UNDER THIS WARRANTY, Company will re-perform the non-conforming portion of the Implementation Services within a commercially reasonable period of time; provided, however, if Company cannot remedy the breach within a reasonable period of time after Customer notifies Company of the breach, then Customer may terminate the Order and request a refund of the portion of the fee attributable to such non-conforming Implementation Service.
  • Support Warranty. Company warrants that: (i) it will provide Support in accordance with these Terms, the Support Policy and generally accepted practices within the software industry; and (ii) that the Support Policy may change, but will not materially degrade Support under these Terms.
  • Embedded Terms Warranty. Company warrants that these Terms, and those terms incorporated by reference into these Terms, may change, but will not materially degrade Customer’s rights during the term hereof.
  • DISCLAIMER.COMPANY disclaims all other warranties, including, without limitation, the implied warranties of NON-INFRINGEMENT, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. While COMPANY takes reasonable physical, technical and administrative measures to secure the OPCON SOLUTION, COMPANY does not guaranty that THE OPCON SOLUTION cannot be compromised.Customer understands that THE OPCON SOLUTION may not be error free and use may be interrupted.

8. Indemnities; Insurance.

  • Indemnity. Company will defend or settle any third-party claim against Customer to the extent such claim alleges that the OpCon Solution (and its underlying technology) infringes or misappropriates its IP rights; providedthat Customer promptly notifies Company of the claim in writing, cooperates with Company in the defense, and allows Company to solely control the defense or settlement of the claim.
  • Company will pay or reimburse Customer any costs incurred in performing its obligations above, and any Company -negotiated settlement amounts or court-awarded damages.
  • If such a claim appears likely to prevail on its merits, in Company’s sole reasonable discretion, then Company may modify the OpCon Solution, procure the necessary rights, or replace it with a functional equivalent.
  • If Company determines that none of the above options are commercially feasible, then Company may terminate the applicable Order, in whole or in part, and will refund to Customer any prepaid and unused fees for such terminated OpCon Solution.
  • · Company has no obligation under this Section to the extent of any claim arising from: Company’s compliance with Customer’s specifications, where there would be no infringement but for these specifications; a combination of the OpCon Solution with other technology or aspects, where the infringement would not occur but for the combination; use of Customer Data; Customer’s alteration, modification, conversion or reverse engineering of the OpCon Solution; or Customer’s use of the OpCon Solution in violation of these Terms.
  • Insurance. Company agrees to carry and maintain during the term of this Agreement, at its own cost, the insurance policies and coverage amounts set forth at _______________________________, which are incorporated herein by reference. Upon Customer’s request, Company will provide evidence of such insurance.

9. Limitations on Liability.

  • EXCLUSION OF Damages. Except for customer’s violation of the license, NEITHER PARTY is liable for any indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages arising out of or related to this Agreement (including, without limitation, costs of delay, loss of or unauthorized access to datA or information, and lost profits).

10. General.

  • Governing Law and Forum. These Terms are governed by the laws of the State of Texas (without regard to conflicts of law principles) for any dispute between the parties or relating in any way to the subject matter of these Terms. Any suit or legal proceeding must be exclusively brought in the federal or state courts for the jurisdiction of the main address of the defendant in such proceedings, and each party submits to this personal jurisdiction and venue. The prevailing party in any litigation is entitled to recover its attorneys’ fees and costs from the other party.
  • Entire Agreement. This Terms and associated Order(s) constitute the entire agreement between the parties and supersede any prior or contemporaneous negotiations or agreements, whether oral or written, related to this subject matter.
  • No Assignment. Customer may not assign or transfer Terms, in whole or in part, to a third-party without Company’s prior written consent.
  • Enforceability. If any provision of these Terms is found to be invalid or unenforceable, the other terms remain in effect.
  • Force Majeure Neither party is liable for events beyond their reasonable control, including without limitation force majeure events, due to contingencies beyond its reasonable control whether directly or indirectly, including but not limited to, fire, explosion, strike, freight embargo, act of God, or of war, civil disturbance, act of any government or any agency or official thereof, labor shortage, transportation contingencies, severe weather, default of manufacturer or supplier as a subcontractor, quarantine or restriction, epidemic or catastrophe, lack of timely instructions or essential information, or other conditions beyond the control of such party. In some cases, a country’s laws may mandate a different definition of force majeure; in such a case, that definition of force majeure will replace the definition in this Section.
  • Money Damages Insufficient. Any breach by a party of these Terms or a violation of the other party’s IP Rights could cause irreparable injury or harm to the other party. The other party may seek injunctive relief to stop such breach or violation or to prevent any future breach or violation.
  • No Additional Terms.Company rejects any additional or conflicting terms of a Customer purchasing document.
  • Survival, CISG. Any terms that by their nature survive termination of these Terms for a party to assert its rights and receive the protections of these Terms, will survive. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods does not apply.
  • Relationship of the Parties. The parties are independent contractors with respect to each other.
  • ExportControl Laws. Customer will not import, export, re-export, or transfer, directly or indirectly, any part of the OpCon Solution or any underlying information or technology, except in full compliance with all United States, foreign and other applicable laws and regulations.
  • Notices. Unless otherwise agreed to by the Parties, all notices required under these Terms (except those relating to OpCon Solution pricing, changes and upgrades) will be deemed effective when received and made in writing by either (a) registered mail, (b) certified mail, return receipt requested, or (c) overnight mail, addressed and sent to the address in the Order.

Coments are closed
Scroll to top